The ITAR defines controlled “technical data” as information that is:

  1. "Required for the design, development, production, manufacture, assembly, operation, repair, testing, maintenance, or modification" of a controlled item, and
  2. "Directly related" to a controlled item, such as a component specifically designed or modified (in any way) for a satellite, spacecraft, or other ITAR-controlled item;

It can be in the form of “blueprints, drawings, photographs, plans, instructions, or documentation,” as well as e-mail, conversations, or other less formal means.